Traffic Sign Detection with Convolutional Neural Networks

selfdrivingcar

Making Self-driving cars work requires several technologies and methods to pull in the same direction (e.g. Radar/Lidar, Camera, Control Theory and Deep Learning). The online available Self-Driving Car Nanodegree from Udacity (divided into 3 terms) is probably the best way to learn more about the topic (see [Term 1], [Term 2] and [Term 3] for more details about each term), the coolest part is that you actually can run your code on an actual self-driving car towards the end of term 3 (I am currently in the middle of term 1 – highly recommended course!).

Note: before taking this course I recommend taking Udacity’s Deep Learning Nanodegree Foundations since most (term 1) projects requires some hands-on experience with Deep Learning.

Traffic Sign Detection with Convolutional Neural Networks

This blog post is a writeup of my (non-perfect) approach for German traffic sign detection (a project in the course) with Convolutional Neural networks (in TensorFlow) – a variant of LeNet with Dropout and (the new) SELU – Self-Normalizing Neural Networks. The effect of SELU was primarily that it quickly gained classification accuracy (even in first epoch), but didn’t lead to higher accuracy than using batch-normalisation + RELU in the end. (Details at: github.com/atveit/TrafficSignClassification). Data Augmentation in particular and perhaps a deeper network could have improved the performance I believe.

For other approaches (e.g. R-CNN and cascaded deep networks) see the blog post: Deep Learning for Vehicle Detection and Recognition.

UPDATE – 2017-July-15:

If you thought Traffic Sign Detection from modern cars was an entire solved problem, think again:

TeslaTrafficSign

 

Best regards,

Amund Tveit

1. Basic summary of the German Traffic Sign Data set.

I used numpy shape to calculate summary statistics of the traffic signs data set:

  • The size of training set is ? 34799
  • The size of the validation set is ? 4410
  • The size of test set is ? 12630
  • The shape of a traffic sign image is ? 32x32x3 (3 color channels, RGB)
  • The number of unique classes/labels in the data set is ? 43

2. Visualization of the train, validation and test dataset.

Here is an exploratory visualization of the data set. It is a bar chart showing how the normalized distribution of data for the 43 traffic signs. The key takeaway is that the relative number of data points varies quite a bit between each class, e.g. from around 6.5% (e.g. class 1) to 0.05% (e.g. class 37), i.e. a factor of at least 12 difference (6.5% / 0.05%), this can potentially impact classification performance.

alt text

3 Design of Architecture

3.1 Preprocessing of images

Did no grayscale conversion or other conversion of train/test/validation images (they were preprocessed). For the images from the Internet they were read from using PIL and converted to RGB (from RBGA), resized to 32×32 and converted to numpy array before normalization.

All images were normalized pixels in each color channel (RGB – 3 channels with values between 0 to 255) to be between -0.5 to 0.5 by dividing by (128-value)/255. Did no data augmentation.

Here are sample images from the training set

alt text

3.2 Model Architecture

Given the relatively low resolution of Images I started with Lenet example provided in lectures, but to improve training I added Dropout (in early layers) with RELU rectifier functions. Recently read about self-normalizing rectifier function – SELU – so decided to try that instead of RELU. It gave no better end result after many epochs, but trained much faster (got > 90% in one epoch), so kept SELU in the original. For more information about SELU check out the paper Self-Normalizing Neural Networks from Johannes Kepler University in Linz, Austria.

My final model consisted of the following layers:

Layer Description
Input 32x32x3 RGB image
Convolution 5×5 1×1 stride, valid padding, outputs 28x28x6
Dropout keep_prob = 0.9
SELU
Max Pooling 2×2 stride, outputs 14x14x6
Convolution 5×5 1×1 stride, valid padding, outputs 10x10x16
SELU
Dropout keep_prob = 0.9
Max Pooling 2×2 stride, outputs 5x5x16
Flatten output dimension 400
Fully connected output dimension 120
SELU
Fully connected output dimension 84
SELU
Fully connected output dimension 84
SELU
Fully connected output dimension 43

3.3 Training of Model

To train the model, I used an Adam optimizer with learning rate of 0.002, 20 epochs (converged fast with SELU) and batch size of 256 (ran on GTX 1070 with 8GB GPU RAM)

3.4 Approach to find solution and getting accuracy > 0.93

Adding dropout to Lenet improved test accuracy and SELU improved training speed. The originally partitioned data sets were quite unbalanced (when plotting), so reading all data, shuffling and creating training/validation/test set also helped. I thought about using Keras and fine tuning a pretrained model (e.g. inception 3), but it could be that a big model on such small images could lead to overfitting (not entirely sure about that though), and reducing input size might lead to long training time (looks like fine tuning is best when you have the same input size, but changing the output classes)

My final model results were:

  • validation set accuracy of 0.976 (between 0.975-0.982)
  • test set accuracy of 0.975

If an iterative approach was chosen:

  • What was the first architecture that was tried and why was it chosen?

Started with Lenet and incrementally added dropout and then several SELU layers.. Also added one fully connected layer more.

  • What were some problems with the initial architecture?

No, but not great results before adding dropout (to avoid overfitting)

  • Which parameters were tuned? How were they adjusted and why?

Tried several combinations learning rates. Could reduce epochs after adding SELU. Used same dropout keep rate.

Since the difference between validation accuracy and test accuracy is very low the model seems to be working well. The loss is also quite low (0.02), so little to gain most likely – at least without changing the model a lot.

4 Test a Model on New Images

4.1. Choose five German traffic signs found on the web

Here are five German traffic signs that I found on the web:

alt text

In the first pick of images I didn’t check that the signs actually were among the the 43 classes the model was built for, and that was actually not the case, i.e. making it impossible to classify correctly. But got interesting results (regarding finding similar signs) for the wrongly classified ones, so replaced only 2 of them with sign images that actually was covered in the model, i.e. making it still impossible to classify 3 of them.

Here are the results of the prediction:

Image Prediction
Priority road Priority road
Side road Speed limit (50km/h)
Adult and child on road Turn left ahead
Two way traffic ahead Beware of ice/snow
Speed limit (60km/h) Speed limit (60km/h)

The model was able to correctly guess 2 of the 5 traffic signs, which gives an accuracy of 40%. For the other ones it can`t classify correctly, but the 2nd prediction for sign 3 – “adult and child on road” – is interesting since it suggests “Go straight or right” – which is quite visually similar (if you blur the innermost of each sign you will get almost the same image).

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Deep Learning for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

mri

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be used in many types of diagnosis e.g. cancer, alzheimer, cardiac and muscle/skeleton issues. This blog post has recent publications of Deep Learning applied to MRI (health-related) data, e.g. for segmentation, detection, demonising and classification.

MRI is described in Wikipedia as:

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields, radio waves, and field gradients to generate images of the organs in the body.

Best regards,
Amund Tveit

Year  Title Author
2017   Residual and Plain Convolutional Neural Networks for 3D Brain MRI Classification  S Korolev, A Safiullin, M Belyaev, Y Dodonova
2017   Automatic segmentation of the right ventricle from cardiac MRI using a learning‐based approach  MR Avendi, A Kheradvar, H Jafarkhani
2017   Learning a Variational Network for Reconstruction of Accelerated MRI Data  K Hammernik, T Klatzer, E Kobler, MP Recht
2017   A 2D/3D Convolutional Neural Network for Brain White Matter Lesion Detection in Multimodal MRI  L Roa
2017   On hierarchical brain tumor segmentation in MRI using fully convolutional neural networks: A preliminary study  S Pereira, A Oliveira, V Alves, CA Silva
2017   Classification of breast MRI lesions using small-size training sets: comparison of deep learning approaches  G Amit, R Ben
2017   A deep learning network for right ventricle segmentation in short-axis MRI  GN Luo, R An, KQ Wang, SY Dong, HG Zhang
2017   A novel left ventricular volumes prediction method based on deep learning network in cardiac MRI  GN Luo, GX Sun, KQ Wang, SY Dong, HG Zhang
2017   Classification of MRI data using Deep Learning and Gaussian Process-based Model Selection  H Bertrand, M Perrot, R Ardon, I Bloch
2017   Using Deep Learning to Segment Breast and Fibroglanduar Tissue in MRI Volumes  MU Dalmş, G Litjens, K Holland, A Setio, R Mann
2017   Automatic Liver and Tumor Segmentation of CT and MRI Volumes using Cascaded Fully Convolutional Neural Networks  PF Christ, F Ettlinger, F Grün, MEA Elshaera, J Lipkova
2017   Automated Segmentation of Hyperintense Regions in FLAIR MRI Using Deep Learning  P Korfiatis, TL Kline, BJ Erickson
2017   Automatic segmentation of left ventricle in cardiac cine MRI images based on deep learning  T Zhou, I Icke, B Dogdas, S Parimal, S Sampath
2017   Deep artifact learning for compressed sensing and parallel MRI  D Lee, J Yoo, JC Ye
2017   Deep Generative Adversarial Networks for Compressed Sensing Automates MRI  M Mardani, E Gong, JY Cheng, S Vasanawala
2017   3D Motion Modeling and Reconstruction of Left Ventricle Wall in Cardiac MRI  D Yang, P Wu, C Tan, KM Pohl, L Axel, D Metaxas
2017   Estimation of the volume of the left ventricle from MRI images using deep neural networks  F Liao, X Chen, X Hu, S Song
2017   A fully automatic deep learning method for atrial scarring segmentation from late gadolinium-enhanced MRI images  G Yang, X Zhuang, H Khan, S Haldar, E Nyktari, X Ye
2017   Age estimation from brain MRI images using deep learning  TW Huang, HT Chen, R Fujimoto, K Ito, K Wu, K Sato
2017   Segmenting Atrial Fibrosis from Late Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiac MRI by Deep-Learned Features with Stacked Sparse Auto-Encoders  S Haldar, E Nyktari, X Ye, G Slabaugh, T Wong
2017   Deep Residual Learning For Compressed Sensing Mri  D Lee, J Yoo, JC Ye
2017   Prostate cancer diagnosis using deep learning with 3D multiparametric MRI  S Liu, H Zheng, Y Feng, W Li
2017   Deep Learning for Brain MRI Segmentation: State of the Art and Future Directions  Z Akkus, A Galimzianova, A Hoogi, DL Rubin
2016   Classification of Alzheimer’s Disease Structural MRI Data by Deep Learning Convolutional Neural Networks  S Sarraf, G Tofighi
2016   De-noising of Contrast-Enhanced MRI Sequences by an Ensemble of Expert Deep Neural Networks  A Benou, R Veksler, A Friedman, TR Raviv
2016   A Combined Deep-Learning and Deformable-Model Approach to Fully Automatic Segmentation of the Left Ventricle in Cardiac MRI  MR Avendi, A Kheradvar, H Jafarkhani
2016   Applying machine learning to automated segmentation of head and neck tumour volumes and organs at risk on radiotherapy planning CT and MRI scans  C Chu, J De Fauw, N Tomasev, BR Paredes, C Hughes
2016   A Fully Convolutional Neural Network for Cardiac Segmentation in Short-Axis MRI  PV Tran
2016   An Overview of Techniques for Cardiac Left Ventricle Segmentation on Short-Axis MRI  A Krasnobaev, A Sozykin
2016   Stacking denoising auto-encoders in a deep network to segment the brainstem on MRI in brain cancer patients: a clinical study  J Dolz, N Betrouni, M Quidet, D Kharroubi, HA Leroy
2016   Hough-CNN: Deep Learning for Segmentation of Deep Brain Regions in MRI and Ultrasound  F Milletari, SA Ahmadi, C Kroll, A Plate, V Rozanski
2016   Mental Disease Feature Extraction with MRI by 3D Convolutional Neural Network with Multi-channel Input  L Cao, Z Liu, X He, Y Cao, K Li
2016   Deep learning trends for focal brain pathology segmentation in MRI  M Havaei, N Guizard, H Larochelle, PM Jodoin
2016   Identification of Water and Fat Images in Dixon MRI Using Aggregated Patch-Based Convolutional Neural Networks  L Zhao, Y Zhan, D Nickel, M Fenchel, B Kiefer, XS Zhou
2016   Deep MRI brain extraction: A 3D convolutional neural network for skull stripping  J Kleesiek, G Urban, A Hubert, D Schwarz
2016   Active appearance model and deep learning for more accurate prostate segmentation on MRI  R Cheng, HR Roth, L Lu, S Wang, B Turkbey
2016   Recurrent Fully Convolutional Neural Networks for Multi-slice MRI Cardiac Segmentation  RPK Poudel, P Lamata, G Montana
2016   Deep learning predictions of survival based on MRI in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  HK van der Burgh, R Schmidt, HJ Westeneng
2016   Semantic-Based Brain MRI Image Segmentation Using Convolutional Neural Network  Y Chou, DJ Lee, D Zhang
2016   Abstract WP41: Predicting Acute Ischemic Stroke Tissue Fate Using Deep Learning on Source Perfusion MRI  KC Ho, S El
2016   A new ASM framework for left ventricle segmentation exploring slice variability in cardiac MRI volumes  C Santiago, JC Nascimento, JS Marques
2015   Crohn’s disease segmentation from mri using learned image priors  D Mahapatra, P Schüffler, F Vos, JM Buhmann
2015   Discovery Radiomics for Multi-Parametric MRI Prostate Cancer Detection  AG Chung, MJ Shafiee, D Kumar, F Khalvati
2015   Real-time Dynamic MRI Reconstruction using Stacked Denoising Autoencoder  A Majumdar
2015   q-Space Deep Learning for Twelve-Fold Shorter and Model-Free Diffusion MRI Scans  V Golkov, A Dosovitskiy, P Sämann, JI Sperl
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Deep Learning for Image Super-Resolution (Scale Up)

superresolution

Scaling down images is a craft, scaling up images is an art

Since in the scaling down to a lower resolution you typically need to remove pixels, but in the case of scaling up you need to invent new pixels. But some Deep Learning models with Convolutional Neural Networks (and frequently Deconvolutional layers) has shown successful to scale up images, this is called Image Super-Resolution. These models are typically trained by taking high resolution images and reducing them to lower resolution and then train in the opposite way. Partially related: Recommend also checking out Odeon et. al’s Distill.pub’s publication: Deconvolution and Checkerboard Artifacts that goes into more detail about the one the core operators used in Image Super-Resolution.

Blog post Illustration Source: Eric Esteve’s 2013 article: Super Resolution bring high end camera image quality to smartphone.

Best regards,

Amund Tveit

Year  Title Author
2017   GUN: Gradual Upsampling Network for single image super-resolution  Y Zhao, R Wang, W Dong, W Jia, J Yang, X Liu, W Gao
2017   Dual Recovery Network with Online Compensation for Image Super-Resolution  S Xia, W Yang, T Zhao, J Liu
2017   A New Single Image Super-resolution Method Based on the Infinite Mixture Model  P Cheng, Y Qiu, X Wang, K Zhao
2017   Underwater Image Super-resolution by Descattering and Fusion  H Lu, Y Li, S Nakashima, H Kim, S Serikawa
2017   Single Image Super-Resolution with a Parameter Economic Residual-Like Convolutional Neural Network  Z Yang, K Zhang, Y Liang, J Wang
2017   Single Image Super-Resolution via Adaptive Transform-Based Nonlocal Self-Similarity Modeling and Learning-Based Gradient Regularization  H Chen, X He, L Qing, Q Teng
2017   Ensemble Based Deep Networks for Image Super-Resolution  Z Huang, L Wang, Y Gong, C Pan
2017   Single Image Super-Resolution Using Multi-Scale Convolutional Neural Network  X Jia, X Xu, B Cai, K Guo
2017   Hyperspectral image super-resolution using deep convolutional neural network  Y Li, J Hu, X Zhao, W Xie, JJ Li
2016   Research on the Natural Image Super-Resolution Reconstruction Algorithm based on Compressive Perception Theory and Deep Learning Model  G Duan, W Hu, J Wang
2016   Image super-resolution with multi-channel convolutional neural networks  Y Kato, S Ohtani, N Kuroki, T Hirose, M Numa
2016   Image super-resolution reconstruction via RBM-based joint dictionary learning and sparse representation  Z Zhang, A Liu, Q Lei
2016   End-to-End Image Super-Resolution via Deep and Shallow Convolutional Networks  Y Wang, L Wang, H Wang, P Li
2016   Single image super-resolution using regularization of non-local steering kernel regression  K Zhang, X Gao, J Li, H Xia
2016   Single image super-resolution via blind blurring estimation and anchored space mapping  X Zhao, Y Wu, J Tian, H Zhang
2016   A Versatile Sparse Representation Based Post-Processing Method for Improving Image Super-Resolution  J Yang, J Guo, H Chao
2016   Robust Single Image Super-Resolution via Deep Networks with Sparse Prior.  D Liu, Z Wang, B Wen, J Yang, W Han, T Huang
2016   EnhanceNet: Single Image Super-Resolution through Automated Texture Synthesis  MSM Sajjadi, B Schölkopf, M Hirsch
2016   Is Image Super-resolution Helpful for Other Vision Tasks?  D Dai, Y Wang, Y Chen, L Van Gool
2016   Cluster-Based Image Super-resolution via Jointly Low-rank and Sparse Representation  N Han, Z Song, Y Li
2016   Photo-Realistic Single Image Super-Resolution Using a Generative Adversarial Network  C Ledig, L Theis, F Huszar, J Caballero, A Aitken
2016   Image super-resolution using non-local Gaussian process regression  H Wang, X Gao, K Zhang, J Li
2016   A hybrid wavelet convolution network with sparse-coding for image super-resolution  X Gao, H Xiong
2016   Amortised MAP Inference for Image Super-resolution  CK Sønderby, J Caballero, L Theis, W Shi, F Huszár
2016   X-Ray fluorescence image super-resolution using dictionary learning  Q Dai, E Pouyet, O Cossairt, M Walton, F Casadio
2016   Image super-resolution based on convolution neural networks using multi-channel input  GY Youm, SH Bae, M Kim
2016   Deep Edge Guided Recurrent Residual Learning for Image Super-Resolution  W Yang, J Feng, J Yang, F Zhao, J Liu, Z Guo, S Yan
2016   Image Super-Resolution by PSOSEN of Local Receptive Fields Based Extreme Learning Machine  Y Song, B He, Y Shen, R Nian, T Yan
2016   Incorporating Image Priors with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Image Super-Resolution  Y Liang, J Wang, S Zhou, Y Gong, N Zheng
2015   Single Image Super-Resolution Via Bm3D Sparse Coding  K Egiazarian, V Katkovnik
2015   Learning a Deep Convolutional Network for Light-Field Image Super-Resolution  Y Yoon, HG Jeon, D Yoo, JY Lee, I Kweon
2015   Single Image Super-Resolution via Image Smoothing  Z Liu, Q Huang, J Li, Q Wang
2015   Deeply Improved Sparse Coding for Image Super-Resolution  Z Wang, D Liu, J Yang, W Han, T Huang
2015   Conditioned Regression Models for Non-Blind Single Image Super-Resolution  GRSSM Rüther, H Bischof
2015   How Useful Is Image Super-resolution to Other Vision Tasks?  D Dai, Y Wang, Y Chen, L Van Gool
2015   Learning Hierarchical Decision Trees for Single Image Super-Resolution  JJ Huang, WC Siu
2015   Single image super-resolution by approximated Heaviside functions  LJ Deng, W Guo, TZ Huang
2015   Jointly Optimized Regressors for Image Super-resolution  D Dai, R Timofte, L Van Gool
2015   Single Image Super-Resolution via Internal Gradient Similarity  Y Xian, Y Tian
2015   Image Super-Resolution Using Deep Convolutional Networks  C Dong, CC Loy, K He, X Tang
2015   Coupled Deep Autoencoder for Single Image Super-Resolution  K Zeng, J Yu, R Wang, C Li, D Tao
2015   Single Image Super-Resolution Using Maximizing Self-Similarity Prior  J Li, Y Wu, X Luo
2015   Accurate Image Super-Resolution Using Very Deep Convolutional Networks  J Kim, JK Lee, KM Lee
2015   Deeply-Recursive Convolutional Network for Image Super-Resolution  J Kim, JK Lee, KM Lee
2015   Single Face Image Super-Resolution via Solo Dictionary Learning  F Juefei
2014   Single image super-resolution via L0 image smoothing  Z Liu, Q Huang, J Li, Q Wang
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Deep Learning for Traffic Sign Detection and Recognition

Traffic Sign Detection and Recognition is key functionality for self-driving cars. This posting has recent papers in this area. Check also out related posting: Deep Learning for Vehicle Detection and Classification

Best regards,
Amund Tveit
Amund Tveit

Year  Title Author
2016   Road surface traffic sign detection with hybrid region proposal and fast R-CNN  R Qian, Q Liu, Y Yue, F Coenen, B Zhang
2016   Traffic sign classification with deep convolutional neural networks  J CREDI
2016   Real-time Traffic Sign Recognition system with deep convolutional neural network  S Jung, U Lee, J Jung, DH Shim
2016   Traffic Sign Detection and Recognition using Fully Convolutional Network Guided Proposals  Y Zhu, C Zhang, D Zhou, X Wang, X Bai, W Liu
2016   A traffic sign recognition method based on deep visual feature  F Lin, Y Lai, L Lin, Y Yuan
2016   The research on traffic sign recognition based on deep learning  C Li, C Yang
2015   Fast Traffic Sign Recognition with a Rotation Invariant Binary Pattern Based Feature  S Yin, P Ouyang, L Liu, Y Guo, S Wei
2015   Malaysia traffic sign recognition with convolutional neural network  MM Lau, KH Lim, AA Gopalai
2015   Negative-Supervised Cascaded Deep Learning for Traffic Sign Classification  K Xie, S Ge, R Yang, X Lu, L Sun
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Deep Learning for Vehicle Detection and Classification

Update: 2017-Feb-03 – launched new service – ai.amundtveit.com (navigation and search in papers). Try e.g. out its Vehicle, Car and Driving pages.


This posting has recent papers about vehicle (e.g. car) detection and classification, e.g. for selv-driving/autonomous cars. Related: check also out Nvidia‘s End-to-End Deep Learning for Self-driving Cars and Udacity‘s Self-Driving Car Engineer (Nanodegree).

Best regards,

<a href=”https://amundtveit.com/about/”>Amund Tveit</a> (<a href=”https://twitter.com/atveit”>@atveit</a>)

Year  Title Author
2016   Vehicle Classification using Transferable Deep Neural Network Features  Y Zhou, NM Cheung
2016   A Hybrid Fuzzy Morphology And Connected Components Labeling Methods For Vehicle Detection And Counting System  C Fatichah, JL Buliali, A Saikhu, S Tena
2016   Evaluation of vehicle interior sound quality using a continuous restricted Boltzmann machine-based DBN  HB Huang, RX Li, ML Yang, TC Lim, WP Ding
2016   An Automated Traffic Surveillance System with Aerial Camera Arrays: Data Collection with Vehicle Tracking  X Zhao, D Dawson, WA Sarasua, ST Birchfield
2016   Vehicle type classification via adaptive feature clustering for traffic surveillance video  S Wang, F Liu, Z Gan, Z Cui
2016   Vehicle Detection in Satellite Images by Incorporating Objectness and Convolutional Neural Network  S Qu, Y Wang, G Meng, C Pan
2016   DAVE: A Unified Framework for Fast Vehicle Detection and Annotation  Y Zhou, L Liu, L Shao, M Mellor
2016   3D Fully Convolutional Network for Vehicle Detection in Point Cloud  B Li
2016   A Deep Learning-Based Approach to Progressive Vehicle Re-identification for Urban Surveillance  X Liu, W Liu, T Mei, H Ma
2016   TraCount: a deep convolutional neural network for highly overlapping vehicle counting  S Surya, RV Babu
2016   Pedestrian, bike, motorcycle, and vehicle classification via deep learning: Deep belief network and small training set  YY Wu, CM Tsai
2016   Fast Vehicle Detection in Satellite Images Using Fully Convolutional Network  J Hu, T Xu, J Zhang, Y Yang
2016   Local Tiled Deep Networks for Recognition of Vehicle Make and Model  Y Gao, HJ Lee
2016   Vehicle detection based on visual saliency and deep sparse convolution hierarchical model  Y Cai, H Wang, X Chen, L Gao, L Chen
2016   Sound quality prediction of vehicle interior noise using deep belief networks  HB Huang, XR Huang, RX Li, TC Lim, WP Ding
2016   Accurate On-Road Vehicle Detection with Deep Fully Convolutional Networks  Z Jie, WF Lu, EHF Tay
2016   Fault Detection and Identification of Vehicle Starters and Alternators Using Machine Learning Techniques  E Seddik
2016   Fault diagnosis network design for vehicle on-board equipments of high-speed railway: A deep learning approach  J Yin, W Zhao
2016   Real-time state-of-health estimation for electric vehicle batteries: A data-driven approach  G You, S Park, D Oh
2016   The Precise Vehicle Retrieval in Traffic Surveillance with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks  B Su, J Shao, J Zhou, X Zhang, L Mei, C Hu
2016   Online vehicle detection using deep neural networks and lidar based preselected image patches  S Lange, F Ulbrich, D Goehring
2016   A closer look at Faster R-CNN for vehicle detection  Q Fan, L Brown, J Smith
2016   Appearance-based Brake-Lights recognition using deep learning and vehicle detection  JG Wang, L Zhou, Y Pan, S Lee, Z Song, BS Han
2016   Night time vehicle detection algorithm based on visual saliency and deep learning  Y Cai, HW Xiaoqiang Sun, LCH Jiang
2016   Vehicle classification in WAMI imagery using deep network  M Yi, F Yang, E Blasch, C Sheaff, K Liu, G Chen, H Ling
2015   VeTrack: Real Time Vehicle Tracking in Uninstrumented Indoor Environments  M Zhao, T Ye, R Gao, F Ye, Y Wang, G Luo
2015   Vehicle Color Recognition in The Surveillance with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks  B Su, J Shao, J Zhou, X Zhang, L Mei
2015   Vehicle Speed Prediction using Deep Learning  J Lemieux, Y Ma
2015   Monza: Image Classification of Vehicle Make and Model Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Transfer Learning  D Liu, Y Wang
2015   Night Time Vehicle Sensing in Far Infrared Image with Deep Learning  H Wang, Y Cai, X Chen, L Chen
2015   A Vehicle Type Recognition Method based on Sparse Auto Encoder  HL Rong, YX Xia
2015   Occluded vehicle detection with local connected deep model  H Wang, Y Cai, X Chen, L Chen
2015   Performance Evaluation of the Neural Network based Vehicle Detection Models  K Goyal, D Kaur
2015   A Smartphone-based Connected Vehicle Solution for Winter Road Surface Condition Monitoring  MA Linton
2015   Vehicle Logo Recognition System Based on Convolutional Neural Networks With a Pretraining Strategy  Y Huang, R Wu, Y Sun, W Wang, X Ding
2015   SiftKeyPre: A Vehicle Recognition Method Based on SIFT Key-Points Preference in Car-Face Image  CY Zhang, XY Wang, J Feng, Y Cheng
2015   Vehicle Detection in Aerial Imagery: A small target detection benchmark  S Razakarivony, F Jurie
2015   Vehicle license plate recognition using visual attention model and deep learning  D Zang, Z Chai, J Zhang, D Zhang, J Cheng
2015   Domain adaption of vehicle detector based on convolutional neural networks  X Li, M Ye, M Fu, P Xu, T Li
2015   Trainable Convolutional Network Apparatus And Methods For Operating A Robotic Vehicle  P O’connor, E Izhikevich
2015   Vehicle detection and classification based on convolutional neural network  D He, C Lang, S Feng, X Du, C Zhang
2015   The AdaBoost algorithm for vehicle detection based on CNN features  X Song, T Rui, Z Zha, X Wang, H Fang
2015   Deep neural networks-based vehicle detection in satellite images  Q Jiang, L Cao, M Cheng, C Wang, J Li
2015   Vehicle License Plate Recognition Based on Extremal Regions and Restricted Boltzmann Machines  C Gou, K Wang, Y Yao, Z Li
2014   Multi-modal Sensor Registration for Vehicle Perception via Deep Neural Networks  M Giering, K Reddy, V Venugopalan
2014   Mooting within the curriculum as a vehicle for learning: student perceptions  L Jones, S Field
2014   Vehicle Type Classification Using Semi-Supervised Convolutional Neural Network  Z Dong, Y Wu, M Pei, Y Jia
2014   Vehicle License Plate Recognition With Random Convolutional Networks  D Menotti, G Chiachia, AX Falcao, VJO Neto
2014   Vehicle Type Classification Using Unsupervised Convolutional Neural Network  Z Dong, M Pei, Y He, T Liu, Y Dong, Y Jia
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Deep Learning with Gaussian Process

Gaussian Process is a statistical model where observations are in the continuous domain, to learn more check out a tutorial on gaussian process (by Univ.of Cambridge’s Zoubin G.). Gaussian Process is an infinite-dimensional generalization of multivariate normal distributions.

Researchers from University of Sheffield – Andreas C. Damanianou and Neil D. Lawrence – started using Gaussian Process with Deep Belief Networks (in 2013). This Blog post contains recent papers related to combining Deep Learning with Gaussian Process.

Best regards,
Amund Tveit

Year  Title Author
2016   Inverse Reinforcement Learning via Deep Gaussian Process  M Jin, C Spanos
2016   Annealing Gaussian into ReLU: a New Sampling Strategy for Leaky-ReLU RBM  CL Li, S Ravanbakhsh, B Poczos
2016   Large Scale Gaussian Process for Overlap-based Object Proposal Scoring  SL Pintea, S Karaoglu, JC van Gemert
2016   Gaussian Neuron in Deep Belief Network for Sentiment Prediction  Y Jin, D Du, H Zhang
2016   Fast, Exact and Multi-Scale Inference for Semantic Image Segmentation with Deep Gaussian CRFs  S Chandra, I Kokkinos
2016   The Variational Gaussian Process  D Tran, R Ranganath, DM Blei
2016   Probabilistic Feature Learning Using Gaussian Process Auto-Encoders  S Olofsson
2016   Sequential Inference for Deep Gaussian Process  Y Wang, M Brubaker, B Chaib
2016   Gaussian Copula Variational Autoencoders for Mixed Data  S Suh, S Choi
2016   Beyond a Gaussian Denoiser: Residual Learning of Deep CNN for Image Denoising  K Zhang, W Zuo, Y Chen, D Meng, L Zhang
2016   Image super-resolution using non-local Gaussian process regression  H Wang, X Gao, K Zhang, J Li
2016   Gaussian Conditional Random Field Network for Semantic Segmentation  R Vemulapalli, O Tuzel, MY Liu, R Chellappa
2016   Structured and Efficient Variational Deep Learning with Matrix Gaussian Posteriors  C Louizos, M Welling
2016   Deep Gaussian Processes for Regression using Approximate Expectation Propagation  TD Bui, D Hernández
2015   Learning to Assess Terrain from Human Demonstration Using an Introspective Gaussian Process Classifier  LP Berczi, I Posner, TD Barfoot
2015   Assessing the Degree of Nativeness and Parkinson’s Condition Using Gaussian Processes and Deep Rectifier Neural Networks  T Grósz, R Busa
2015   Gaussian processes methods for nostationary regression  L Muñoz González
2015   Deep Neural Networks with Random Gaussian Weights: A Universal Classification Strategy?  R Giryes, G Sapiro, AM Bronstein
2015   Nonlinear Gaussian Belief Network based fault diagnosis for industrial processes  H Yu, F Khan, V Garaniya
2015   Interactions Between Gaussian Processes and Bayesian Estimation  YL Wang
2015   Gaussian discrete restricted Boltzmann machine: theory and its applications: a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of …  S Manoharan
2015   Prosody Generation Using Frame-based Gaussian Process Regression  T Koriyama, T Kobayashi
2015   Mean-Field Inference in Gaussian Restricted Boltzmann Machine  C Takahashi, M Yasuda
2015   Variational Auto-encoded Deep Gaussian Processes  Z Dai, A Damianou, J González, N Lawrence
2015   Training Deep Gaussian Processes using Stochastic Expectation Propagation and Probabilistic Backpropagation  TD Bui, JM Hernández
2015   Accurate Object Detection and Semantic Segmentation using Gaussian Mixture Model and CNN  S Jain, S Dehriya, YK Jain
2014   Cross Modal Deep Model and Gaussian Process Based Model for MSR-Bing Challenge  J Wang, C Kang, Y He, S Xiang, C Pan
2014   Non-negative Factor Analysis of Gaussian Mixture Model Weight Adaptation for Language and Dialect Recognition  J Glass
2014   Gaussian Process Models with Parallelization and GPU acceleration  Z Dai, A Damianou, J Hensman, N Lawrence
2014   Parametric Speech Synthesis Using Local and Global Sparse Gaussian  T Koriyama, T Nose, T Kobayashi
2014   On the Link Between Gaussian Homotopy Continuation and Convex Envelopes  H Mobahi, JW Fisher III
2014   Improving Deep Neural Networks Using State Projection Vectors Of Subspace Gaussian Mixture Model As Features  M Karthick, S Umesh
2014   A Theoretical Analysis of Optimization by Gaussian Continuation  H Mobahi, JW Fisher III
2014   Factoring Variations in Natural Images with Deep Gaussian Mixture Models  A van den Oord, B Schrauwen
2014   Feature representation with Deep Gaussian processes
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Deep Learning for Ultrasound Analysis


Ultrasound (also called Sonography) are sound waves with higher frequency than humans can hear, they frequently used in medical settings, e.g. for checking that pregnancy is going well with fetal ultrasound. For more about Ultrasound data formats check out Ultrasound Research Interface. This blog post has recent publications about applying Deep Learning for analyzing Ultrasound data.

Best regards,
Amund Tveit

Year  Title Authors
2016   Early-stage atherosclerosis detection using deep learning over carotid ultrasound images  RM Menchón
2016   Automatic Detection of Standard Sagittal Plane in the First Trimester of Pregnancy Using 3-D Ultrasound Data  S Nie, J Yu, P Chen, Y Wang, JQ Zhang
2016   Detection of prostate cancer using temporal sequences of ultrasound data: a large clinical feasibility study  S Azizi, F Imani, S Ghavidel, A Tahmasebi, JT Kwak
2016   Hough-CNN: Deep Learning for Segmentation of Deep Brain Regions in MRI and Ultrasound  F Milletari, SA Ahmadi, C Kroll, A Plate, V Rozanski
2016   Hybrid approach for automatic segmentation of fetal abdomen from ultrasound images using deep learning  H Ravishankar, SM Prabhu, V Vaidya, N Singhal
2016   Iterative Multi-domain Regularized Deep Learning for Anatomical Structure Detection and Segmentation from Ultrasound Images  H Chen, Y Zheng, JH Park, PA Heng, SK Zhou
2016   4D Cardiac Ultrasound Standard Plane Location by Spatial-Temporal Correlation  Y Gu, GZ Yang, J Yang, K Sun
2016   Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Breast Ultrasound Using Computerized BI-RADS Features and Machine Learning Methods  J Shan, SK Alam, B Garra, Y Zhang, T Ahmed
2016   Stacked Deep Polynomial Network Based Representation Learning for Tumor Classification with Small Ultrasound Image Dataset  J Shi, S Zhou, X Liu, Q Zhang, M Lu, T Wang
2016   Coupling Convolutional Neural Networks and Hough Voting for Robust Segmentation of Ultrasound Volumes  C Kroll, F Milletari, N Navab, SA Ahmadi
2016   Classifying Cancer Grades Using Temporal Ultrasound for Transrectal Prostate Biopsy  S Azizi, F Imani, JT Kwak, A Tahmasebi, S Xu, P Yan
2015   Tumor Classification by Deep Polynomial Network and Multiple Kernel Learning on Small Ultrasound Image Dataset  X Liu, J Shi, Q Zhang
2015   Automatic Recognition of Fetal Facial Standard Plane in Ultrasound Image via Fisher Vector  B Lei, EL Tan, S Chen, L Zhuo, S Li, D Ni, T Wang
2015   Estimation of the Arterial Diameter in Ultrasound Images of the Common Carotid Artery  RM Menchón
2015   Cell recognition based on topological sparse coding for microscopy imaging of focused ultrasound treatment  Z Wang, J Zhu, Y Xue, C Song, N Bi
2014   Mapping between ultrasound and vowel speech using DNN framework  X Zheng, J Wei, W Lu, Q Fang, J Dang
2014   High-definition 3D Image Processing Technology for Ultrasound Diagnostic Scanners  M Ogino, T Shibahara, Y Noguchi, T Tsujita
2014   Fully automatic segmentation of ultrasound common carotid artery images based on machine learning  RM Menchón
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Deep Learning with FPGA

This chapter presents recent papers for using FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) for Deep Learning. FPGAs can roughly be seen as a Software-configurable Hardware, i.e you in some cases get close to dedicated hardware speed (although typically at lower clock frequency than chips, but typically with strong on-FPGA parallelism), this can be a potential good fit for e.g. Convolutional Neural Networks since they require many convolutional layer calculations (with many convolutional filters per conv.layer) with large tensors. Recommend starting with having a look at Deep Learning on FPGAs: Past, Present, and Future

Best regards,

Amund Tveit

Convolutional Neural Network

  1. Throughput-Optimized OpenCL-based FPGA Accelerator for Large-Scale Convolutional Neural Networks
    – Authors: N Suda, V Chandra, G Dasika, A Mohanty, Y M (2016)
  2. Curbing the roofline: a scalable and flexible architecture for CNNs on FPGA
    – Authors: P Meloni, G Deriu, F Conti, I Loi, L Raffo, L Benini (2016)
  3. Comprehensive Evaluation of OpenCL-based Convolutional Neural Network Accelerators in Xilinx and Altera FPGAs
    – Authors: R Tapiador, A Rios (2016)
  4. Optimizing FPGA-based Accelerator Design for Deep Convolutional Neural Networks
    – Authors: C Zhang, P Li, G Sun, Y Guan, B Xiao, J Cong (2015)
  5. Musical notes classification with Neuromorphic Auditory System using FPGA and a Convolutional Spiking Network
    – Authors: E Cerezuela (2015)
  6. CNNLab: a Novel Parallel Framework for Neural Networks using GPU and FPGA-a Practical Study with Trade-off Analysis
    – Authors: M Zhu, L Liu, C Wang, Y Xie (2016)
  7. Energy-Efficient CNN Implementation on a Deeply Pipelined FPGA Cluster
    – Authors: C Zhang, D Wu, J Sun, G Sun, G Luo, J Cong (2016)

 

Other uses of FPGA in Deep Learning

  1. Deep Neural Network Architecture Implementation on FPGAs Using a Layer Multiplexing Scheme
    – Authors: F Ortega (2016)
  2. FPGA Based Multi-core Architectures for Deep Learning Networks
    – Authors: H Chen (2016)
  3. FPGA Implementation of a Scalable and Highly Parallel Architecture for Restricted Boltzmann Machines
    – Authors: K Ueyoshi, T Marukame, T Asai, M Motomura… (2016)
  4. DLAU: A Scalable Deep Learning Accelerator Unit on FPGA
    – Authors: C Wang, Q Yu, L Gong, X Li, Y Xie, X Zhou (2016)
  5. Deep Learning on FPGAs
    – Authors: Gj Lacey (2016)
  6. DNNWEAVER: From High-Level Deep Network Models to FPGA Acceleration
    – Authors: H Sharma, J Park, E Amaro, B Thwaites, P Kotha (2016)
  7. Handwritten Digit Classification on FPGA
    – Authors: K Kudrolli, S Shah, Dj Park (2016)
  8. Fpga Based Implementation of Deep Neural Networks Using On-chip Memory Only
    – Authors: J Park, W Sung (2016)
  9. FPGA Implementation of Autoencoders Having Shared Synapse Architecture
    – Authors: A Suzuki, T Morie, H Tamukoh (2016)
  10. Programming and Runtime Support to Blaze FPGA Accelerator Deployment at Datacenter Scale
    – Authors: M Huang, D Wu, Ch Yu, Z Fang, M Interlandi, T Condie… (2016)
  11. A Deep Learning Prediction Process Accelerator Based FPGA
    – Authors: Q Yu, C Wang, X Ma, X Li, X Zhou (2015)
  12. FPGA implementation of a Deep Belief Network architecture for character recognition using stochastic computation
    – Authors: K Sanni, G Garreau, Jl Molin, Ag Andreou (2015)
  13. An FPGA-Based Multiple-Weight-and-Neuron-Fault Tolerant Digital Multilayer Perceptron (Full Version)
    – Authors: T Horita, I Takanami, M Akiba, M Terauchi, T Kanno (2015)
  14. Efficient Generation of Energy and Performance Pareto Front for FPGA Designs
    – Authors: Sr Kuppannagari, Vk Prasanna (2015)
  15. Optimizing FPGA-based Accelerator Design for Deep Convolutional Neural Networks
    – Authors: C Zhang, P Li, G Sun, Y Guan, B Xiao, J Cong (2015)
  16. Musical notes classification with Neuromorphic Auditory System using FPGA and a Convolutional Spiking Network
    – Authors: E Cerezuela (2015)
  17. FPGA Acceleration of Recurrent Neural Network based Language Model
    – Authors: S Li, C Wu, Hh Li, B Li, Y Wang, Q Qiu (2015)
  18. FPGA emulation of a spike-based, stochastic system for real-time image dewarping
    – Authors: Jl Molin, T Figliolia, K Sanni, I Doxas, A Andreou… (2015)
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Zero-Shot (Deep) Learning

Zero-Shot Learning is making decisions after seing only one or few examples (as opposed to other types of learning that typically requires large amount of training examples). Recommend having a look at An embarrassingly simple approach to zero-shot learning first.

Best regards,

Amund Tveit

  1. Less is more: zero-shot learning from online textual documents with noise suppression
    – Authors: R Qiao, L Liu, C Shen, A Hengel (2016)
  2. Synthesized Classifiers for Zero-Shot Learning
    – Authors: S Changpinyo, Wl Chao, B Gong, F Sha (2016)
  3. Tinkering Under The Hood: Interactive Zero-Shot Learning with Pictorial Classifiers
    – Authors: V Krishnan (2016)
  4. Active Transfer Learning with Zero-Shot Priors: Reusing Past Datasets for Future Tasks
    – Authors: E Gavves, T Mensink, T Tommasi, Cgm Snoek… (2015)
  5. Transductive Multi-view Zero-Shot Learning
    – Authors: Y Fu, Tm Hospedales, T Xiang, S Gong (2015)
  6. Predicting Deep Zero-Shot Convolutional Neural Networks using Textual Descriptions
    – Authors: J Ba, K Swersky, S Fidler, R Salakhutdinov (2015)
  7. Zero-Shot Learning with Structured Embeddings
    – Authors: Z Akata, H Lee, B Schiele (2014)
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Embedding for NLP with Deep Learning

Word Embedding was introduced by Bengio in early 2000s, and interest in it really accelerated when Google presented Word2Vec in 2013.

This blog post has recent papers related to embedding for Natural Language Processing with Deep Learning. Example application areas embedding is used for in the papers include finance (stock market prediction), biomedical text analysis, part-of-speech tagging, sentiment analysis, pharmacology (drug adverse effects).

I recommend you to start with the paper: In Defense of Word Embedding for Generic Text Representation

Best regards,

Amund Tveit

  1. An approach to the use of word embeddings in an opinion classification task
    – Authors: F Enríquez, Ja Troyano, T López (2016)
  2. Learning Document Embeddings by Predicting N-grams for Sentiment Classification of Long Movie Reviews
    – Authors: B Li, T Liu, X Du, D Zhang, Z Zhao (2016)
  3. A Distributed Chinese Naive Bayes Classifier Based on Word Embedding
    – Authors: M Feng, G Wu (2016)
  4. An Empirical Study on Sentiment Classification of Chinese Review using Word Embedding
    – Authors: Y Lin, H Lei, J Wu, X Li (2015)
  5. Learning Bilingual Embedding Model for Cross-Language Sentiment Classification
    – Authors: X Tang, X Wan (2014)
  6. Training word embeddings for deep learning in biomedical text mining tasks
    – Authors: Z Jiang, L Li, D Huang, L Jin (2016)
  7. Learning Dense Convolutional Embeddings For Semantic Segmentation
    – Authors: Aw Harley, Kg Derpanis, I Kokkinos (2016)
  8. Creating Causal Embeddings for Question Answering with Minimal Supervision
    – Authors: R Sharp, M Surdeanu, P Jansen, P Clark, M Hammond (2016)
  9. Discriminative Phrase Embedding for Paraphrase Identification
    – Authors: W Yin, H Schütze (2016)
  10. Word embedding based retrieval model for similar cases recommendation
    – Authors: Y Zhao, J Wang, F Wang (2016)
  11. Learning Embeddings of API Tokens to Facilitate Deep Learning Based Program Processing
    – Authors: Y Lu, G Li, R Miao, Z Jin (2016)
  12. Locally Embedding Autoencoders: A Semi-Supervised Manifold Learning Approach of Document Representation
    – Authors: C Wei, S Luo, X Ma, H Ren, J Zhang, L Pan (2016)
  13. Deep Learning Architecture for Part-of-Speech Tagging with Word and Suffix Embeddings
    – Authors: A Popov (2016)
  14. Robobarista: Learning to Manipulate Novel Objects via Deep Multimodal Embedding
    – Authors: J Sung, Sh Jin, I Lenz, A Saxena (2016)
  15. Pruning subsequence search with attention-based embedding
    – Authors: C Raffel, Dpw Ellis (2016)
  16. Sentence Embedding Evaluation Using Pyramid Annotation
    – Authors: T Baumel, R Cohen, M Elhadad (2016)
  17. Deep Sentence Embedding Using the Long Short Term Memory Network: Analysis and Application to Information Retrieval
    – Authors: H Palangi, L Deng, Y Shen, J Gao, X He, J Chen… (2015)
  18. Feedback recurrent neural network-based embedded vector and its application in topic model
    – Authors: L Li, S Gan, X Yin (2016)
  19. Enhancing Sentence Relation Modeling with Auxiliary Character-level Embedding
    – Authors: P Li, H Huang (2016)
  20. Learning Word Meta-Embeddings by Using Ensembles of Embedding Sets
    – Authors: W Yin, H Schütze (2015)
  21. Syntax-Aware Multi-Sense Word Embeddings for Deep Compositional Models of Meaning
    – Authors: J Cheng, D Kartsaklis (2015)
  22. A Deep Embedding Model for Co-occurrence Learning
    – Authors: Y Shen, R Jin, J Chen, X He, J Gao, L Deng (2015)
  23. Jointly Modeling Embedding and Translation to Bridge Video and Language
    – Authors: Y Pan, T Mei, T Yao, H Li, Y Rui (2015)
  24. Learning semantic word embeddings based on ordinal knowledge constraints
    – Authors: Q Liu, H Jiang, S Wei, Zh Ling, Y Hu (2015)
  25. Boosting Named Entity Recognition with Neural Character Embeddings
    – Authors: C Dos Santos, V Guimaraes, Rj Niterói, R De Janeiro (2015)
  26. Evaluating word embeddings and a revised corpus for part-of-speech tagging in Portuguese
    – Authors: Er Fonseca, Jlg Rosa, Sm Aluísio (2015)
  27. Temporal Embedding in Convolutional Neural Networks for Robust Learning of Abstract Snippets
    – Authors: J Liu, K Zhao, B Kusy, J Wen, R Jurdak (2015)
  28. Learning Feature Hierarchies: A Layer-wise Tag-embedded Approach
    – Authors: Z Yuan, C Xu, J Sang, S Yan, M Hossain (2015)
  29. Multi-Source Bayesian Embeddings for Learning Social Knowledge Graphs
    – Authors: Z Yang, J Tang (2015)
  30. PTE: Predictive Text Embedding through Large-scale Heterogeneous Text Networks
    – Authors: J Tang, M Qu, Q Mei (2015)
  31. Pharmacovigilance from social media: mining adverse drug reaction mentions using sequence labeling with word embedding cluster features
    – Authors: A Nikfarjam, A Sarker, K O’Connor, R Ginn, G Gonzalez (2015)
  32. Projective Label Propagation by Label Embedding
    – Authors: Z Zhang, W Jiang, F Li, L Zhang, M Zhao, L Jia (2015)
  33. An Investigation of Neural Embeddings for Coreference Resolution
    – Authors: V Godbole, W Liu, R Togneri (2015)
  34. Deep Multimodal Embedding: Manipulating Novel Objects with Point-clouds, Language and Trajectories
    – Authors: J Sung, I Lenz, A Saxena (2015)
  35. AutoExtend: Extending Word Embeddings to Embeddings for Synsets and Lexemes
    – Authors: S Rothe, H Schütze (2015)
  36. Deep Multilingual Correlation for Improved Word Embeddings
    – Authors: A Lu, W Wang, M Bansal, K Gimpel, K Livescu (2015)
  37. Leverage Financial News to Predict Stock Price Movements Using Word Embeddings and Deep Neural Networks
    – Authors: Y Peng, H Jiang (2015)
  38. The Impact of Structured Event Embeddings on Scalable Stock Forecasting Models
    – Authors: Jb Nascimento, M Cristo (2015)
  39. Representing Text for Joint Embedding of Text and Knowledge Bases
    – Authors: K Toutanova, D Chen, P Pantel, H Poon, P Choudhury… (2015)
  40. In Defense of Word Embedding for Generic Text Representation
    – Authors: G Lev, B Klein, L Wolf (2015)
  41. Learning Multi-Relational Semantics Using Neural-Embedding Models
    – Authors: B Yang, W Yih, X He, J Gao, L Deng (2014)
  42. Improving relation descriptor extraction with word embeddings and cluster features
    – Authors: T Liu, M Li (2014)
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